# Mathematical logic and linguistics

# Mathematical logic and linguistics

Mon-Wed 17h-19h

from Oct 5, 2015

–

Room 102, Facultat de Matemàtiques i Estadística, UPC

One of the new directions taken by mathematical logic in the late 20th century was the turn towards substructural or resource-conscious inference [Girard 1987].

The non-commutative variety of this had already been anticipated in linguistics thirty years earlier [Lambek 1958]. Recently this convergence of mathematical logic and linguistics has consolidated in a particular categorial logic for syntax and semantics, which it is the objective of this course to present.

Mon-Wed 17h-19h

from Oct 5, 2015

–

Room 102, Facultat de Matemàtiques i Estadística, UPC

One of the new directions taken by mathematical logic in the late 20th century was the turn towards substructural or resource-conscious inference [Girard 1987].

The non-commutative variety of this had already been anticipated in linguistics thirty years earlier [Lambek 1958]. Recently this convergence of mathematical logic and linguistics has consolidated in a particular categorial logic for syntax and semantics, which it is the objective of this course to present.

Glyn Morril (UPC)

Oriol Valentín (UPC)

##### Contents

The material is organised into two blocks: one of 12 hours, covering basic material (Block B), and one of 8 hours with six additional topics (Block A).

Block B consists of 6×2 hours, closely following [T. Leinster: Basic Category Theory, CUP 2014], one chapter per 2-hour lecture:

B1: Categories, functors and natural transformations.

B2: Adjoints.

B3: Interlude on sets.

B4: Representables.

B5: Limits.

B6: Adjoints, representables and limits.

Block A consists of 8 hours covering the following six additional topics (not covered by Leinster’s book), which serve on one hand to illustrate the basic concepts acquired, and on the other hand to point towards some current developments and applications:

A1: Monoidal categories and graphical calculus Vector spaces, Frobenius algebras, and rudiments of categorical quantum mechanics (after Coecke and Abramsky).

A2: Enriched category theory (2 hours) Abelian categories, metric spaces as enriched categories (after Lawvere); magnitude of metric spaces and other enriched categories, and its geometric and topological significance.

A3: Monads, Lawvere theories and operads (2 hours) Adjunctions and monads, Eilenberg {Moore construction, Kleisli construction, algebraic theories, operads. Examples, including the monads for ultrafilters and probability measures.

A4: Presheaf categories and knowledge representation. Diagram categories and categories of elements; colimits and sheaves; applications to graph theory and database theory (after Spivak).

A5: Species and polynomial functors. Natural numbers and finite sets, power series and species, calculus of species and polynomial functors.

·A6: Groupoids Symmetries as obstruction to classification problems (representability of moduli problems), homotopy solutions in terms of stacks, with a view towards higher category theory and homotopy theory.

(Although the examples in Block A are chosen more on the exotic side (for pedagogical effect), the concepts they illustrate are general, and examples abound also in the five general mathematics subjects areas mentioned, and elsewhere in the mathematical sciences).

##### Bibliography

For Block B we follow

[T. Leinster: Basic Category Theory, CUP 2014]. Additional references include:[E. Riehl: Category Theory in Context, CUP 2014] [S. Awodey: Category Theory, OUP 2010], and [F. W. Lawvere & R. Rosebrugh: Sets for Mathematics, CUP 2003] (for B3).

For Block A:

A1: [J. Baez & M. Stay: Physics, Topology, Logic and Computation: a Rosetta Stone, 2009] [J. Kock: Frobenius algebras and 2D topological quantum field theories, CUP 2004]. [C. Heunen & J. Vicary: Categorical Quantum Mechanics, CUP, forthcoming,prefinal version available].

A2: [F. Borceux: Handbook of Categorical Algebra: Volume 2, CUP 1994] [F. W. Lawvere: Metric spaces, generalized logic, and closed categories, 1973, TAC Reprint 2002] [T. Leinster: The Magnitude of Metric Spaces, Documenta Math. 2013].

A3: [S. Awodey: Category Theory, OUP 2010] [T. Leinster: Higher operads, higher categories, CUP 2003].

A4: [M. La Palme Reyes, G. Reyes and H. Zolfaghari: Generic figures and their glueings: A constructive approach to functor categories. Polimetrica, 2004] [D. Spivak: Category Theory for the Sciences, MIT Press 2014].

A5: [A. Joyal: Une théorie combinatoire des séries formelles, Adv. Math. 1981] [J. Baez, J. Dolan: From finite sets to Feynman diagrams, Mathematics unlimited, 2001] [J. Kock: Notes on polynomial functors, manuscript, 2009].

A6: [R. Brown: Topology and Groupoids, Booksurge 2006].